Category Archives: Design

Are Water Tightness Tests During Construction Necessary?

A water tightness test is a procedure that is used to determine if a water-holding vessel is free of leaks. Water tightness testing includes three main steps: filling the vessel(s) with water, monitoring and measuring the water level of the vessel(s) over a prolonged period of time, and analyzing the measurements and observations recorded during the test. Depending on the results and how they are interpreted, the contractor may be required to complete repairs on the vessel(s) and conduct the test a second time. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) provides guidance on how concrete structures should be water tested as well as the expected results. All language pertaining to water tightness testing is found in Section 350.1-10 of the ACI code.

The ACI is adamant that any water tightness testing must be conducted prior to the vessel(s) receiving any type of finish, sealant, or waterproofing. This may seem like a backwards methodology; however, concrete, by nature, should be watertight. Therefore, it must be tested prior to receiving any type of coating or finishing layer. The pool finish should be thought of as a secondary means of water containment, with the first being the natural characteristics of concrete. In theory, a plaster finish, waterproofing membrane, or any other form of finish, may temporarily hide or cover imperfections in the concrete vessel(s). Hidden imperfections may become exposed over time and begin to leak.

The water tightness test is a procedure that occurs over a minimum of six days. It is important that the concrete vessel has cured for at least 28 days prior to the test taking place.  Once the Pool 003concrete has cured and gained sufficient strength, it is ready to be tested. It is essential that all penetrations through the concrete vessel(s), such has drains, lights and inlets, be thoroughly sealed off before the test is conducted. Once all penetrations have been sealed and the shell has cured, the contractor can begin the test. The vessel(s) is expected to lose water through concrete absorption during the first few days of the test. Concrete is porous by nature, and will soak up water. It is unknown how long this will take or how much water will be absorbed, so the contractor is advised to monitor and refill the vessel(s) over the first three days. After three days or whenever the water absorption has stopped, whichever comes first, the contractor may begin taking down measured recordings. The contractor must take measurements of the vessel(s) water level(s) every 12 hours over a span of three days. It is essential that the recording process remain consistent throughout the test to generate accurate results. After three days of recording, the results shall be compiled and analyzed to determine if the water loss meets or exceeds allowable levels.

Evaporation and precipitation can greatly affect the results of a water tightness test, and must be considered in the test calculations. The contractor shall fill a restrained, calibrated, open container with water and allow the container to float within the concrete vessel(s) during the testing period. The open container will be used to measure evaporation and precipitation throughout the test. Every time the contractor measures the water levels of the concrete vessel(s), they must also measure the water levels of the open container(s). The water loss or gain seen in the open container(s) is a direct result of evaporation or precipitation and should be used to analyze the concrete vessel(s) recordings. For example, if the open container is measured at ¼” below the starting measurement after 12 hours, and the concrete vessel is observed at ½” below its starting measurement, we can attribute ¼” of water loss in the concrete vessel to evaporation. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the remaining ¼” of water loss seen in the concrete vessel in those 12 hours is the actual water that was lost due to issues with the concrete vessel.

Water tightness testing is one of the few, if not the only, surefire ways of determining whether a concrete vessel has been built watertight. It is important to understand the time, money, and resources needed to conduct a proper water tightness test. Each test typically takes at least one week, requires thousands, if not millions, of gallons of water, and adds to the overall project cost. While the test requirements seem immense, they guarantee the concrete vessel will be watertight once complete. If the vessel is not tested, and experiences leaks over years of use, the cost and time needed to fix any damage related to the leaks could be much greater than the initial cost of testing the vessel. Counsil-Hunsaker believes that every concrete vessel should be tested for water tightness to verify the quality of the build and to certify its longevity.

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Design Differences: Indoor vs Outdoor Pools

Besides the obvious fact that indoor pools are built inside of a building while outdoor pools are built outside, there are many additional differences between them that need to be considered during the design process.

When it comes to outdoor pool design, one of the biggest things to consider is seasonal changes and how they might affect the operations of the pool or facility. For instance, if temperatures fall below freezing, the pool will need to be winterized to prevent pipes from breaking. The materials the pool is made out of will also need to be able to handle the sun’s UV rays and other weather conditions. Choosing the appropriate type of material can significantly prolong the life of the pool, making this an important area of design. Some indoor pools receive a small amount of UV rays, but usually nowhere near as much as outdoor pools.

BlueWater YMCA professional (1)

Typically, indoor pools have a tiled deck finish, whereas outdoor pools usually have a concrete deck. Some concrete decks have artistic designs to them, and can even use a splash of stain, which adds to the look and feel of the environment.

Diving boards and platforms require clearances to maintain visitor safety. Considering these clearances while designing can inform decisions surrounding ceiling height, hanging light fixtures, duct-work and other surrounding equipment for indoor facilities with diving boards. It is important to check with state and local building codes to ensure all required diving board clearances are met.

Lighting is something else to consider. While outdoor pools use the sun as its source of lighting, indoor pools must use hanging lights, wall lights or underwater lights to illuminate the natatorium. If an outdoor pool will be open after the sun goes down, it will obviously also require light poles and potentially underwater lights as well. Underwater lights can also add a bit of elegance to the pool. Like diving board clearance, the lighting system should also be adequate per state and local health codes.

Bavarian Inn (1)Water slides are a staple of both indoor and outdoor aquatic facilities, but there is more flexibility when it comes to outdoor water slides. Typically, outdoor projects allow for a greater number of water slides, as you don’t have to worry about blowing your budget by increasing the building size to accommodate several slides. A trend that Counsilman-Hunsaker is beginning to see are water slides that exit and reenter buildings through the wall before exiting into a pool or runout. This utilizes both indoor and outdoor space and helps eliminate the need for a larger building. It also adds a mysterious and intriguing aesthetic to your facility design.

One of the most important elements associated with designing indoor pools as opposed to outdoor pools is structural support. An indoor pool could be elevated on the 13th floor of a building. It could even be partially overhanging the side of the building, similar to the pool at the Joule Hotel. These types of pools require additional design consideration and will need to be encased and waterproofed. Should the pool ever leak, the water needs to be drained appropriately, rather than leak down to the floor below.

These are just a handful of choices that need to be made when considering the design of indoor and outdoor pools. As you may be thinking, there is a lot of liability involved in the design process of a swimming pool. It is always a good idea to get an experienced team of aquatic professionals behind you to help make these decisions. Learn more about Counsilman-Hunsaker by checking out our Portfolio of work!

Supercharging Your 50-Meter Pool

Have you ever observed a child play with a box? They are often more amused with the box than the toy that came inside it. Similarly, a rectangular pool doesn’t have to be boring. I confess that, as both a competitive swimmer and coach, I’m partial to the good ‘ol fashioned lap pool. And I admit that the average rec swimmer probably  doesn’t share my addiction to following the solid black line for thousands of yards at a time. But that doesn’t mean that your classic 50-meter pool is obsolete; it’s actually quite the contrary. Your facility is full of recreational potential. A 50-meter pool is large enough to incorporate many different attractions. It is also large enough to accommodate several different activities at once, giving the facility a lot of programming flexibility. With a little creativity – thinking outside of the box, if you will – you can transform your “box” into the coolest pool in town!

Without further ado, here are Counsilman-Hunsaker’s top ten ideas for supercharging your 50-meter pool:

10) Diving Boards

Heritage Park - Henderson (1)While many facilities are removing their diving boards, we encourage you to keep them, or perhaps even re-install them. (This assumes your pool depth and shape meets the applicable code requirements.) Diving boards – both one-meter and three-meter – offer a lot of recreational value, as well as a different experience for each swimmer, depending on their ability. Looking to add to your diving board use? Host a cannonball contest for added fun!

9) Jumping Platforms

Most patrons are not competitive divers, but many will welcome the opportunity to experience a little “cliff” diving. A jumping platform can be different than the platforms used for competitive diving. There are no specific dimensional requirements, but the pool depths must be appropriate for the equivalent height of the diving platform.

8) Water Slides

Tall and colorful water slides will attract attention from your regular patrons, as well as folks who have been driving past the pool for years without paying much attention. Water slides with runouts make a great addition because they don’t require any space in the pool as the plunge area. Drop slides discharge into the pool, but require about the same amount of clear space as a diving board. Sometimes it is possible for a drop slide to share a platform with a three-meter diving board.

7) Zip Lines

Zip line SEMO (1)Speaking of features that can share the three-meter diving platform, zip lines can add a lot to your facility. Other than a secure place to anchor the cable and a tall platform (approximately 6-10 feet), a zip line doesn’t require much equipment. They don’t require a large footprint of deck or pool space, nor do they obscure sightlines as do some of the larger pool features.

6) Climbing Walls

Climbing walls also come with a water depth and clear space requirement, but if you have the space, go big! Climbing walls offer a fun experience across a wide range of ages. Consider installing two climbing walls to add a competitive aspect to your facility, with climbers racing one another to the top!

5) Spraygrounds

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAIf your 50-meter pool has more deep water than you need, consider adding a sprayground. Your facility may already have enough extra deck space to add a small sprayground. Or, there may be an opportunity to extend the pool deck to accommodate this type of feature. Flush-mounted sprays, vertical features, and even multi-level play structures are all options for spraygrounds. The opportunities when it comes to theming these structures are also practically limitless.

4) Inflatable Obstacle Courses

Not every pool has enough space to contain this much excitement, but your 50-meter pool does! Inflatable obstacle courses offer the experience of climbing, running, and jumping, all while racing friends along the way. Obstacle courses also lend themselves well to tournaments or obstacle course “Olympics.”

3) Water Basketball

Water basketball is a classic swimming pool activity. It is a low cost addition that can be provided at almost any pool. Swimmers will enjoy playing games, or just shooting hoops.

2) Water Volleyball

Similar to water basketball, water volleyball is a classic swimming pool activity. It is also a low cost addition which can be added to many pools. Nearly everyone knows how to play, and families and friends of various ages can all play at the same time.

1) Recreational Aquatic Sports Leagues and Tournaments

Many of the above activities can be transformed into a league, tournament, or even a one-day event. Cannonball contests, climbing wall races, obstacle course tournaments, basketball and volleyball tournaments, or even water polo or underwater hockey can all be established activities. Whether you create a regular league, or promote and host a one-day event, these events can draw in new swimmers of all types. Offering small prizes throughout the summer will keep them coming back for more. However, bragging rights may be the best prize of all!

So there you have it! Utilize some of these ideas in your facility to get more use out of your 50-meter pool.

Buying Direct or Through a Contractor? What’s Right for You?

On both large and small commercial pool construction projects, owners have multiple options when it comes to purchasing operating equipment. Most commercial swimming pools are designed and constructed “turn-key,” meaning everything needed to run the pool is provided by the contractor as part of the construction process. This includes items like first-aid kits, lifeguard stands, and the first 30-days worth of pool chemicals. chemBut turn-key is just one of many delivery methods. Another popular method involves owners purchasing items directly from wholesalers or manufacturers. Like most aspects of the construction process, the sooner this is communicated to the design team, the better.

Pools are delivered to the owner turn-key because it helps the project get through the construction review process. Local health departments and other review entities will want to verify that all necessary maintenance and safety equipment is on-hand when it comes time to open and operate the facility. If an owner purchases directly, these items typically still need to be included in the construction documents to obtain necessary building permits. Owners should coordinate with their designers to ensure health departments and building authorities understand that requirements will be met.

Purchasing Direct:

  • Allows owners to specifically choose their products. Often times, general contractors supply the lowest bid product. If you prefer one product over another, purchasing direct allows you to make that decision for yourself.
  • Allows owners to easily provide input on quantities of product while placing the order. This is a big draw for facilities with limited storage space.
  • If done right, purchasing direct should save the owner money. Contractors sometimes mark up products as part of the construction process.

Items Typically Purchased Direct:

  • boardLarge play features like waterslides and aquatic play structures. These are typically installed by the manufacturer regardless of who purchases it.
  • Scoreboards in competitive venues.
  • Maintenance and safety equipment.

Why Turn-Key Might Be Good For You:

  • Purchasing direct requires a lot of research to ensure you’re purchasing the right items. Additionally, it requires you to be budget and spending-savvy so your purchases are good things for your bottom line. Contractors tend to have the in-depth technical understanding or prior experience necessary to make smart product decisions. This isn’t always the case for facility owners.
  • Purchasing direct also requires negotiation skills to secure fair pricing. Without a skilled negotiator or buying power, the process can lead to higher costs and lower-quality products.

Don’t think you can do this on your own? Hire a professional to help you navigate the process. With a professional, you often gain negotiating power as part of a larger entity. This should automatically qualify you for prices that even the most skilled negotiators will not be able to obtain. Look for a professional that has a wide range of supplier relationships and has your best inerest at heart when it comes to operations products.

What Are Natural Swimming Pools?

At a time when people, more than ever, are aware of the dangerous chemicals associated with products they use every day, it’s no surprise that this consciousness has made its way into people’s thoughts about the places they spend their time. When taking a dip in a pool, swimmers know that chlorine and other chemicals are used to keep the water safe and clean from harmful bacteria. But as concerns rise regarding the effects of prolonged exposure to these chemicals, people tend to look into what alternatives are available. One common alternative that comes up is the natural swimming pool.

While a relatively new idea in the United States, natural pools have been seen in Europe for decades. The first natural swimming pool was built in Austria in the 1980’s. The private pool began to gain popularity, and the first public natural swimming pool was built in Germany in 1998. Now, there are over 20,000 private and public natural pools in Europe. In recent years, we have started to see this trend gain traction in the United States, with many choosing to add natural pools in their own backyards. Due to regulatory reasons, natural pools have really only been developed for residential, private use. However, last summer, the very first public natural swimming pool opened in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Due to the strict chemical requirements of public pools in the United States, this project required many layers of approval from the state legislature to become a pilot project for this type of pool. Should the project prove successful and efficient, we will likely see more natural pools in the United States in the near future.

nat grapicNatural pools consist of two areas: the swimming pool and the regeneration zone. These two spaces can be located directly next to one other or in completely separate areas. The pool works by filtering water through biological filters before reaching the regeneration basin. Natural gravity can drain the water to the regeneration area, or pumps can be utilized to send the water to the basin. The regeneration zone consists of plants which create an ecosystem to clean the water. The plants and gravel in the basin help remove any harmful bacteria from the water before it is pumped back into the main pool area. Pool skimmers are also often used to keep the water surface clear of debris.

The primary advantage of natural pools is that there is no chemical use, which can lower maintenance costs. Additionally, the regeneration area can serve as a home for some wildlife. However, where there are advantages, there are also drawbacks. Projects like this often require a larger footprint than a typical pool due to the regeneration zone. Project scale should always be considered. Additionally, it can take some time for the artificial ecosystem to take effect. This initially could cause issues with algae and other organisms running rampant in the regeneration zone. But after time, this problem diminishes. Natural pools tend to have a more greenish color than traditional swimming pools, which can be concerning for some swimmers. But, swimmers who are used to the crystal clear blue of traditional swimming pools can swim assured knowing the natural pool is keeping the water clean and safe for them to enjoy.

Whether a natural swimming pool is designed to look like a pond or a traditional pool, users can enjoy an experience that is new and unique, yet familiar and enjoyable.